Protocol Analyzers

Sierra T244

The Sierra T244 is a SAS 4.0 protocol analyzer designed to non-intrusively capture up to four 24 Gb/s SAS logical links providing unmatched analysis and debug capabilities for developers working on next generation storage systems, devices and software.

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Sierra T244  The Industry's first SAS 4.0 protocol analyzer provides accurate and reliable capture of up to four SAS 24 Gb/s physical links for efficient test and debug of next generation storage systems.
Sierra M244  The industry's first SAS 4.0 protocol analyzer / jammer / exerciser system for testing next generation storage systems, devices and software.
Sierra M124A  The flagship four port analyzer, exerciser and error injection system provides the most accurate and reliable capture of SAS 12 Gb/s protocol for fast debug, analysis and problem solving.
Sierra M122A  Two port Serial ATA (SATA) & Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) analyzer / exerciser platform; Supports 6Gb/s (upgradeable to support 12Gb/s SAS)
Serial ATA Test and Verification: Teledyne LeCroy's protocol analysis tools are designed from the ground up to address these unique characteristics of Serial ATA. Teledyne LeCroy's analysis and design suites are developed specifically for use with the SAS and SATA protocols, and provide extensive protocol decoding, expert error analysis, and complete user support when decoding and viewing the recorded traffic. This extensive protocol support, combined with the different traffic views, advanced triggering, data filtering, traffic generation, and error injection capability, allows engineers to rapidly become familiar with SATA-specific issues, and quickly understand new issues the first time they encounter them.
Teledyne LeCroy provides everything needed for Serial ATA analysis including real-time hardware triggering and filtering on the critical components of Serial ATA traffic. Teledyne LeCroy's Expert Analysis software simplifies the overall debug process by using collapsible, color-coded packets to represent commands, FISs and primitives. This provides point-and-click "drill down" to lower level details along with the ease of use and understanding that Teledyne LeCroy is well known for.
Learn more about SATA (Serial ATA)Technology
SATA (Serial ATA) Overview
The storage industry is in the midst of a large-scale transition from parallel ATA, the dominant desktop storage interface, to Serial ATA. This migration reflects a broader transition across the industry to Serial technologies for computer-based communications. Driven primarily by lower voltages and costs required in future chipsets, Serial ATA is poised for industry-wide adoption. The specification thoughtfully preserves software compatibility with the Parallel ATA command set. What's more, it offers smaller, thinner, lower cost cables that also offer compatibility at the physical layer with the emerging Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) standard.
  • Performance - Parallel ATA does not have scalability to support several more speed doublings, and it is nearing its performance capacity. By contrast, Serial ATA defines a roadmap starting at 1.5 gigabits per second (equivalent to a data rate of 150 MB/s) up to 6Gigabits per second.
  • Lower Voltage - Parallel ATA's 5-volt signaling requirement will be increasingly difficult to meet as the industry continues to reduce chip core voltages. Serial ATA is better aligned with future manufacturing processes. It reduces signaling voltages to approximately 250 millivolts (1/4 volt).
  • Pin Count - Currently, the parallel ATA interface has 26 signal pins going into the interface chip. Serial ATA uses only 4 signal pins, improving the pin efficiency and accommodating a highly integrated chip implementation.
  • Improved Cabling - Parallel ATA bulky ribbon cables contain 40-pin header connector. Serial ATA introduces thin, flexible cabling scheme that offers longer cables and improved airflow within the chassis.
  • Software Compatible - Serial ATA is compatible at the register level with parallel ATA. This means Serial ATA requires no changes to existing software and operating systems in order to function, and it provides backward compatibility with existing operating environments.
  • SAS Compatibility - A significant feature offered by Serial ATA is the expectation that SATA will be form-factor compatibility with Serial Attached SCSI. SATA drives will plug directly into Serial Attached SCSI connectors and if supported in the system, will transparently operate as a SATA device. This allows systems to be deployed that can use either Serial Attached SCSI drives, for their high performance or SATA drives that will provide a lower-cost-per-megabyte storage platform.
  • SATA DevSleep™ - The latest SATA 3.2 specification includes DevSleep, a new feature designed to reduce power consumption and allow longer battery life as well as energy savings in the data center. It re-uses the 3.3V power pin on the SATA interface to instruct the device to enter the Sleep state where it uses less power than Slumber mode. With most low power modes, this new feature requires extensive testing at the protocol layer to ensure a seamless user experience.
  • Serial ATA is a full duplex protocol. There is a continuous flow of signals from each device moving down the bus. The device and host are transmitting (TX) and receiving (RX) at the same time.
  • Bidirectional traffic pattern eliminates the need for bus negotiation overhead
  • Data characters vs Primitives - Primitives are the simplest elements within the Serial ATA protocol. Primitives are 32-bit DWORDs used to initiate control of the serial line functions (X_RDY, CONT, etc...). In addition to these "handshaking" and flow control signals, Primitives are also used to delimit or "frame" user data.
  • Frame Information Structure (FIS) - A frame is an indivisible unit of information exchanged between a host and device. A frame consists of a SOF primitive, a Frame Information Structure (FIS), a CRC calculated over the contents of the FIS, and an EOF primitive. A FIS is the user payload of a frame; a frame is a group of Dwords that convey information between host and device as described previously.

Designed for the SAS 4.0 (24 Gb/s) standard, the Sierra T244 provides the most accurate capture, display and analysis of the next generation SAS protocol. Featuring the industry's highest-fidelity probe design, the Sierra T244 seamlessly locks on 24G signaling without distorting the dynamic link training sequence. For comprehensive testing and verification of components, backplanes and subsystems, the Sierra platform delivers true end-to-end visibility to help ensure SAS 4.0 performance and reliability.

Flexible Hardware

The Sierra T244 features custom probe technology known as T.A.P.4™ (Transparent Acquisition Probing) which has been field-proven in Teledyne LeCroy's 32Gb/s Fibre Channel and PCIe 4.0 analyzer platforms. Leveraging this cutting-edge analog front-end, the T244 provides a robust analysis platform well suited for both silicon bring-up, as well as multi-vendor interoperability testing. The T.A.P.4 probe design sets the standard for accuracy by seamlessly capturing and analyzing the critical link initialization and speed negotiation sequence. Designed to operate transparently, the Sierra passes signals that are nearly identical to the original DUT signaling. This ensures the system-under-test behaves consistently while the Sierra records the 24 Gb/s link training coefficients without distorting the dynamic equalization process.

The Sierra chassis supports a convenient design for stacking or racking multiple units and still provide access to all data and control ports. Suitable for either bench-top or storage rack environments, the Sierra includes support for both USB 3.0 and Gigabit Ethernet host connections. Combining SuperSpeed upload with the convenience of USB plug-and-play connectivity can save hours of time over the life of the equipment. With the Ethernet port, the Sierra is fully addressable over the network with built-in utilities that display the current user, the IP Address and status. LEDs provide information on negotiated link speed, protocol error detection, link state, and whether OOB or data traffic is active. Memory configurations - from 32GB to 128GB -can address long recording times. A built-in port provides DC power for target devices to conveniently supply SSDs or HDDs with 12v or 5v power. The rear chassis also provides a sync-port capable of synchronizing trace captures from multiple analyzers.

Expert Analysis Software

Seamlessly integrated with Teledyne LeCroy's expert analysis software, the Sierra platform overcomes the struggles of legacy debug tools with a revamped graphical interface featuring easy to understand displays of protocol traffic. For viewing commands and frames in sequential order, the Spreadsheet View provides a traditional table format that can be customized to add any field in a separate column. The exchange level assembles frames and primitives into the logical SCSI command, data, and status transactions. This is critical for wide-port analysis where large gaps can occur between command and status. Full decoding of SMP Discovery request/response transactions makes it easy to troubleshoot scale-out storage applications.

Use the Frame Inspector to view primitives or drill-down on the 150-bit SPL packet structures including headers, payloads, scrambled and unscrambled symbols. The field view provides unprecedented decoding of higher layer protocol fields, including the full CDB as well as SCSI sense data and ASC qualifiers to streamline troubleshooting. All of the expert analysis views can be used simultaneously and are automatically synchronized / displayed within one application. Any combination of display and filter options can be configured as the default view making it faster to interpret captured traffic.

Pinpoint Triggering

The Sierra provides hardware triggering to pinpoint protocol events of interest. Trigger events can be specified at the lowest levels including error conditions, bus states, primitives (, etc...) header fields (packet type, LBA, etc...), or SCSI parameters (CDB, Tag, etc...). The Advanced mode offers 24 sequential states, 4 independent timers, multiple counters, the ability to pre-filter at each state, and the ability to assign individual triggers to each port pair. Users can define sophisticated sequential event trigger scenarios including more complex events such as timing violations between state changes. From speed negotiation to protocol errors, virtually any logical SAS or SATA event can be defined as the trigger event.

Fast Search Tools

The Sierra SAS verification system provides extensive traffic metrics and statistics to help locate and identify protocol issues. Traffic Summary reports are hyperlinked to the actual trace events. Navigation in the spreadsheet view is easy with Quick-Find. Click on any field and Quick-Find populates the search window with the highlighted string allowing easy navigation forward or backward. Add Boolean operators to find lower or higher values. The Quick Filter uses the same easy mechanism to hide redundant fields. Markers can be added, searched and displayed as tooltips.

With best-in-class features including T.A.P.4™ probing, 128GB recording memory, and SuperSpeed 3.0 data upload ports, the Sierra T244 system helps reduce time-to-market for storage developers.


Host Machine Minimum Requirements Microsoft Windows® 10, Windows 8.1, or Windows 7; 2 GB of RAM; Storage with at least 200 MB of free space for the installation of the software and additional space for recorded data; display with resolution of at least 1024x768 with at least 16-bit color depth; USB 2.0 port and/or 100/1000baseT Ethernet; For optimal performance, please refer to our recommended configuration in the product documentation.
Recording Memory Size 32 GB, 64 GB or 128 GB
No. of Ports Supported Up to 4 ports
Data Rates Supported 24 Gb/s, 12 Gb/s 6 Gb/s, 3 Gb/s
Cascadable Up to 32 ports
Host Interface USB 2.0, USB 3.0, 10/100/1000baseT Ethernet
Data Bus connectors External Mini-SAS HD ports with support for Active copper /optical cables
Front Panel Connectors Mini-SAS HD (up to 4 ports), Mini-SAS HD Target (up to 4 ports), External Trigger IN/OUT, USB 3.0 & 10/100/1000 Ethernet Host Interface
Front Panel Indicators 5 LEDs (Trigger, Error, Link, Speed, Frame/OOB) for each of 4 Initiators and Targets; Status LCD; Power
Rear Panel Connectors AC Power, Power Port, CATC Sync (DB9)
Dimensions Metal Chassis: 392 x 89 x 372; With Bumpers 418 x 98 x 375 mm (16.5"" x 14.75" x 3.8")
Weight 3.6 Kg (8.5 lbs)
Power Requirements 90-254 VAC, 47-63 Hz universal input, 200W maximum
DCM Option
DC Power Cables