Technical Library

Technical Library

The White Papers section of the Teledyne LeCroy Technical Library lets you search for, browse, and print the latest technical documentation. A search aid allows you to filter documents by category or keyword.

White Papers on this site are available in PDF format for easy download.

White Papers

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Enhanced Sample Rate Mode Measurement Precision

Enhanced Sample Rate, combined with the low-noise system architecture and the tailored brick-wall frequency response in the HDO4000A, HDO6000A, HDO8000A and MDA800A series oscilloscopes dramatically improves the measurement precision when the input frequency signals are very high frequency, such as a high-frequency sine wave or fast edge.

Technologies for Very High Bandwidth Real-time Oscilloscopes

Technologies and design considerations are presented for the design of very high bandwidth oscilloscopes. These include chip, DSP and microwave technologies employed in some of the fastest waveform digitizers in the world.

32-bit/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency WDM Transmission over 177-km Few-Mode Fiber

We transmit 32 WDM channels over 12 spatial and polarization modes of 177 km few-mode fiber at a record spectral efficiency of 32 bit/s/Hz. The transmitted signals are strongly coupled and recovered using 12 x 12 multiple-input multiple-output digital signal processing.

12 x 12 MIMO Transmission over 130-km Few-Mode Fiber

We demonstrate 12 x 12 multiple-input multiple-output mode multiplexed transmission over 130-km of few-mode fiber of a combined 6-space-, 2-polarization-, and 8-wavelength-division multiplex, using low-loss photonic lantern and 3D-waveguide mode multiplexers.

Configurable Protocol Decoding of Manchester And NRZ-Encoded Signals

The industry's first NRZ and Manchester configurable protocol decoders accept a broad range of physical characteristics for NRZ- or Manchester-encoded signals.

Low-Loss Mode Coupler for Mode-Multiplexed transmission in Few-Mode Fiber

We present a novel low-loss 3-spot mode coupler to selectively address 6 spatial and polarization modes of a few-mode fiber. The coupler is used in a 66 MIMO-transmission experiment over a 154-km hybrid span consisting of 129-km depressed-cladding and 25-km graded-index few-mode fiber.

Mode-Multiplexed 620-GBd QPSK Transmission over 1200-km DGD-Compensated Few-Mode Fiber

Low differential group delay (DGD) between the modes of a graded-index few-mode fiber is obtained by combining segments with DGD of opposite sign. Transmission of mode-multiplexed 620-GBd QPSK over a record distance of 1200 km is demonstrated.

Space-Division Multiplexed Transmission over 4200-km 3-Core Microstructured Fiber

We experimentally demonstrate multiple-input-multiple-output transmission of a combined 3-space-, and 2-polarization-, and 5-wavelength-division multiplex in a 3-core microstructured fiber over 4200 km. This is the record transmission distance for spatial-division multiplexing in a fiber.

DesignCon 2012 - Robust Method for Addressing 12 Gbps Interoperability for High-Loss and Crosstalk-Aggressed Channels

This paper addresses a new methodology for 12 Gbps interoperability that combines a concerted family of pathological channels, internal eye monitoring, and external EQ simulation tools, providing insight into an EQ optimization strategy that addresses the specific channel’s mix of crosstalk noise, jitter, and channel loss. This also provides a backplane designer the ability to configure a high-loss, crosstalk aggressed system.

DesignCon 2012 - The Relationship Between Discrete-Frequency S-parameters and Continuous-Frequency Responses

We explore in detail the relationship between discrete-frequency responses connected with sparameters and the implied continuous time response. This is done in both the frequency- and time-domain to develop the proper insight and explore issues with real time-domain responses, time-aliasing, causality, interpolation and re-sampling of discrete-frequency data. Using the insight gained, we identify the conditions for sufficiency of sampling and the side-effects of the invariable practical conditions when these side-effects cannot be completely dispelled. This paper is especially useful for understanding issues involved in direct application of sparameters in linear simulations, like those used in virtual probing applications in scopes.